Abusive[ edit ] Abusive relationships involve either maltreatment or violence from one individual to another and include physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment. Like living organisms, relationships have a beginning, a lifespan, and an end.
They tend to grow and improve gradually, as people get to know each other and become closer emotionally, or they gradually deteriorate as people drift apart, move on with their lives and form new relationships with others.
One of the most influential models of relationship development was proposed by psychologist George Levinger. According to the model, the natural development of a relationship follows five stages: Acquaintance and acquaintanceship — Becoming acquainted depends on previous relationships, physical proximity , first impressions, and a variety of other factors.
If two people begin to like each other, continued interactions may lead to the next stage, but acquaintance can continue indefinitely. Another example is association. Buildup — During this stage, people begin to trust and care about each other. The need for intimacy, compatibility and such filtering agents as common background and goals will influence whether or not interaction continues.
Continuation — This stage follows a mutual commitment to quite a strong and close long-term friendship, romantic relationship, or even marriage. It is generally a long, relatively stable period. Nevertheless, continued growth and development will occur during this time. Mutual trust is important for sustaining the relationship. Deterioration — Not all relationships deteriorate, but those that do tend to show signs of trouble.
Boredom, resentment, and dissatisfaction may occur, and individuals may communicate less and avoid self-disclosure. Loss of trust and betrayals may take place as the downward spiral continues, eventually ending the relationship.
Alternately, the participants may find some way to resolve the problems and reestablish trust and belief in others. Ending — The final stage marks the end of the relationship, either by breakups, death, or by spatial separation for quite some time and severing all existing ties of either friendship or romantic love.
Terminating a relationship[ edit ] According to the latest Systematic Review of the Economic Literature on the Factors associated with Life Satisfaction dating from , stable and secure relationships are beneficial, and correspondingly, relationship dissolution is harmful.
Breaking up can actually be a positive experience when the relationship did not expand the self and when the breakup leads to personal growth. They also recommend some ways to cope with the experience: Purposefully focussing on the positive aspects of the breakup "factors leading up to the break-up, the actual break-up, and the time right after the break-up" Minimising the negative emotions Journaling the positive aspects of the breakup e. This exercise works best, although not exclusively, when the breakup is mutual.
Furthermore, rebound relationships don't last any shorter than regular relationships. One reason cited for divorce is infidelity. The determinants of unfaithfulness are debated by dating service providers, feminists, academics and science communicators. Conversely, costs are the negative or unpleasant aspects of the partner or their relationship.
Comparison level includes what each partner expects of the relationship. The comparison level is influenced by past relationships, and general relationship expectations they are taught by family and friends. Individuals in long-distance relationships , LDRs, rated their relationships as more satisfying than individuals in proximal relationship, PRs.
LDR couples reported the same level of relationship satisfaction as couples in PRs, despite only seeing each other on average once every 23 days. Therefore, the costs and benefits of the relationship are subjective to the individual, and people in LDRs tend to report lower costs and higher rewards in their relationship compared to PRs.
Background[ edit ] While traditional psychologists specializing in close relationships have focused on relationship dysfunction, positive psychology argues that relationship health is not merely the absence of relationship dysfunction. Additionally, healthy relationships can be made to "flourish. A social skills approach posits that individuals differ in their degree of communication skill, which has implications for their relationships.
Relationships in which partners possess and enact relevant communication skills are more satisfying and stable than relationships in which partners lack appropriate communication skills. Adult attachment models represent an internal set of expectations and preferences regarding relationship intimacy that guide behavior.
Within the context of safe, secure attachments, people can pursue optimal human functioning and flourishing. Secure individuals are comfortable with intimacy and interdependence and are usually optimistic and social in everyday life. Securely attached individuals usually use their partners for emotion regulation so they prefer to have their partners in close proximity.
Preoccupied people are normally uneasy and vigilant towards any threat to the relationship and tend to be needy and jealous. Dismissing individuals are low on anxiety over abandonment and high in avoidance of intimacy. Dismissing people are usually self-reliant and uninterested in intimacy and are independent and indifferent towards acquiring romantic partners. They are very fearful of rejection, mistrustful of others, and tend to be suspicious and shy in everyday life.
Attachment styles are created during childhood but can adapt and evolve to become a different attachment style based on individual experiences.
On the contrary, a good romantic relationship can take a person from an avoidant attachment style to more of a secure attachment style. Romantic love The capacity for love gives depth to human relationships, brings people closer to each other physically and emotionally, and makes people think expansively about themselves and the world. Attraction — Premeditated or automatic, attraction can occur between acquaintances, coworkers, lovers, etc.
Studies have shown that attraction can be susceptible to influence based on context and externally induced arousal, with the caveat that participants be unaware of the source of their arousal. A study by Cantor, J. As supported by a series of studies, Zillman and colleagues showed that a preexisting state of arousal can heighten reactions to affective stimuli. One commonly studied factor is physical proximity also known as propinquity. The MIT Westgate studies famously showed that greater physical proximity between incoming students in a university residential hall led to greater relationship initiation.
Another important factor in the initiation of new relationships is similarity. Put simply, individuals tend to be attracted to and start new relationships with those who are similar to them. These similarities can include beliefs, rules, interests, culture, education, etc.
Individuals seek relationships with like others because like others are most likely to validate shared beliefs and perspectives, thus facilitating interactions that are positive, rewarding and without conflict. Development — Development of interpersonal relationships can be further split into committed versus non-committed romantic relationships, which have different behavioral characteristics.
More committed relationships by both genders were characterized by greater resource display, appearance enhancement, love and care, and verbal signs of possession. In contrast, less committed relationships by both genders were characterized by greater jealousy induction. In terms of gender differences, men used greater resource display than women, who used more appearance enhancement as a mate-retention strategy than men.
Some important qualities of strong, enduring relationships include emotional understanding and effective communication between partners. Idealization of one's partner is linked to stronger interpersonal bonds. Idealization is the pattern of overestimating a romantic partner's positive virtues or underestimating a partner's negative faults in comparison to the partner's own self-evaluation.
In general, individuals who idealize their romantic partners tend to report higher levels of relationship satisfaction. The presence of all three components characterizes consummate love , the most durable type of love. In addition, the presence of intimacy and passion in marital relationships predicts marital satisfaction. Also, commitment is the best predictor of relationship satisfaction, especially in long-term relationships.
Positive consequences of being in love include increased self-esteem and self-efficacy. The emotion of love comes from the anticipation of pleasure. Particular duties arise from each person's particular situation in relation to others.
The individual stands simultaneously in several different relationships with different people: Juniors are considered in Confucianism to owe their seniors reverence and seniors have duties of benevolence and concern toward juniors. A focus on mutuality is prevalent in East Asian cultures to this day. Minding relationships[ edit ] The mindfulness theory of relationships shows how closeness in relationships may be enhanced.
Minding is the "reciprocal knowing process involving the nonstop, interrelated thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of persons in a relationship. Jung 's theory of psychological types. Socionics allocates 16 types of the relations — from most attractive and comfortable up to disputed.
The understanding of a nature of these relations helps to solve a number of problems of the interpersonal relations, including aspects of psychological and sexual compatibility. The researches of married couples by Aleksandr Bukalov et al.
The study of socionic type allocation in casually selected married couples confirmed the main rules of the theory of intertype relations in socionics. Culture of appreciation[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message After studying married couples for many years, psychologist John Gottman has proposed the theory of the "magic ratio" for successful marriages.
The theory says that for a marriage to be successful, couples must average a ratio of five positive interactions to one negative interaction. As the ratio moves to 1: Over time, therapy aims to turn these interpersonal strategies into more positive ones, which include complaint, appreciation, acceptance of responsibility, and self-soothing. Similarly, partners in interpersonal relationships can incorporate positive components into difficult subjects in order to avoid emotional disconnection.
In essence, practicing this technique aims to improve the quality of communication between members of the relationship, and in turn the gratitude expressed between said members. People often turn to others to share their good news termed "capitalization". Studies show that both the act of telling others about good events and the response of the person with whom the event was shared have personal and interpersonal consequences, including increased positive emotions, subjective well-being , and self-esteem, and relationship benefits including intimacy, commitment, trust, liking, closeness, and stability.
Other studies have found that relationships in which partners responded to "good news" communication enthusiastically were associated with higher relationship well-being. According to the VSA model, in order to achieve a complete understanding of relationship functioning, research must consider all functional dimensions, including enduring vulnerabilities, stress, and adaptive processes simultaneously. Attachment requires sensory and cognitive processing that lead to intricate motor responses.
As humans, the end goal of attachment is the motivation to acquire love , which is different from other animals who just seek proximity. This might explain how infant attachment affects adult emotional health.
This continues on throughout childbearing.