Groth typology[ edit ] Clinical psychologist  Nicholas Groth has described several different types of rape. Corrective rape The goal of this rapist is to humiliate , debase and hurt their victim; they express their contempt for their victim through physical violence and profane language.
For these rapists, sex is a weapon to defile and degrade the victim, rape constitutes the ultimate expression of their anger. This rapist considers rape the ultimate offense they can commit against the victim. Anger rape is characterized by physical brutality, much more physical force is used during the assault than would be necessary if the intent were simply to overpower the victim and achieve penetration.
This type of offender attacks their victim by grabbing, striking and knocking the victim to the ground, beating them, tearing their clothes, and raping them. The experience for the offender is one that is of conscious anger and rage. The intent of the power rapist is to assert their competency.
The power rapist relies upon verbal threats, intimidation with a weapon, and only uses the amount of force necessary to subdue the victim.
The power rapist tends to have fantasies about sexual conquests and rape. They may believe that even though the victim initially resists them, that once they overpower their victim, the victim will eventually enjoy the rape. The rapist believes that the victim enjoyed what was done to them, and they may even ask the victim to meet them for a date later. Because this is only a fantasy, the rapist does not feel reassured for long by either their own performance or the victim's response. The rapist feels that they must find another victim, convinced that this victim will be "the right one".
Hence, their offenses may become repetitive and compulsive. They may commit a series of rapes over a short period of time. For this rapist, sexual excitement is associated with the inflicting of pain upon their victim.
Sadistic rape usually involves extensive, prolonged torture and restraint. Sometimes it can take on ritualistic or other bizarre qualities. Sexual areas of the victim's body become a specific focus of injury or abuse. The sadistic rapist's assaults are deliberate, calculated, and preplanned. They will often wear a disguise or will blindfold their victims.
The victims of a sadistic rapist may not survive the attack. For some offenders, the ultimate satisfaction is gained from murdering the victim.
Gang rape Some forms of sexual violence, such as gang rape, are predominantly committed by young men. For this reason, it may not be equated by the perpetrators with the idea of a crime.
In several areas in Papua New Guinea, women can be punished by public gang rape, often sanctioned by elders. A Social-Interactionist Perspective" with James Tedeschi, a book which argues that sexual fulfillment is the motive of rapists, rather than the aggressive desire to dominate the victim.
Meta-analyses indicate that convicted rapists demonstrate greater sexual arousal to scenes of sexual coercion involving force than do non-rapists. Drug facilitated sexual assault Drug-facilitated sexual assault DFSA , also known as predator rape, is a sexual assault carried out after the victim has become incapacitated due to having consumed alcoholic beverages or other drugs.
Alcohol has been shown to play a disinhibiting role in certain types of sexual assault,  as have some other drugs, notably cocaine. Thus people are more likely to act violently when drunk because they do not consider that they will be held accountable for their behavior. Some forms of group sexual violence are also associated with drinking. In these settings, consuming alcohol is an act of group bonding, where inhibitions are collectively reduced and individual judgement ceded in favor of the group.
Psychological factors[ edit ] There has been considerable research in recent times on the role of cognitive variables among the set of factors that can lead to rape. A detailed conceptual analysis shows that objectification might underlie denial of agency and personhood that leads to rape. Sexual violence is also associated with a preference for impersonal sexual relationships as opposed to emotional bonding[ dubious — discuss ], with having many sexual partners and with the inclination to assert personal interests at the expense of others.
Those motivational factors repeatedly implicated are having anger at women and having the need to control or dominate them. Studies on sexually abused boys have shown that around one in five continue in later life to molest children themselves. Childhood environments that are physically violent, emotionally unsupportive and characterized by competition for scarce resources have been associated with sexual violence. Such a response creates an environment in which rape can occur with impunity.
While families will often try to protect their women from rape and may also put their daughters on contraception to prevent visible signs should it occur,  there is rarely much social pressure to control young men or persuade them that coercing sex is wrong. In cases where the victim was a single pregnant female, the offender was either acquitted of murder or received a reduced sentence.
Societal factors[ edit ] Factors operating at a societal level that influence sexual violence include laws and national policies relating to gender equality in general and to sexual violence more specifically, as well as norms relating to the use of violence.
While the various factors operate largely at local level, within families, schools, workplaces and communities, there are also influences from the laws and norms working at national and even international level. War and natural disasters[ edit ] Main article: Wartime sexual violence Lawlessness during wars and civil conflicts can create a culture of impunity towards human rights abuses of civilians.
Some irregular armies and militias tacitly endorse looting of civilian areas as a way for troops to supplement their meagre incomes, and promote pillaging and rape of civilians as a reward for victory. Several authors have argued that the relationship between poverty and perpetration of sexual violence is mediated through forms of crisis of masculine identity. Trapped in their slums, with little or no available employment, they are unlikely to attain either of these models or expectations of masculine success.
In these circumstances, ideals of masculinity are reshaped to emphasize misogyny, substance abuse and participation in crime and often also xenophobia and racism. Gang rape and sexual conquest are normalized, as men turn their aggression against women they can no longer control patriarchally or support economically.
Nonetheless, abduction by a stranger is quite often the prelude to a rape and the opportunities for such an abduction are influenced by the physical environment. The social environment within a community is, however, usually more important than the physical surrounding.
How deeply entrenched in a community beliefs in male superiority and male entitlement to sex are will greatly affect the likelihood of sexual violence taking place, as will the general tolerance in the community of sexual assault and the strength of sanctions, if any, against perpetrators. Legal and social deterrents of victims reporting rape[ edit ] Further information: Adultery , Honor killing , and Stoning Women in various countries face serious risks if they report rape.
These risks include being subjected to violence including honor killings by their families, being prosecuted for sex outside marriage , or being forced to marry their rapist. Social norms[ edit ] Sexual violence committed by men is to a large extent rooted in ideologies of male sexual entitlement. These belief systems grant women extremely few legitimate options to refuse sexual advances. In some cultures women, as well as men, regard marriage as entailing the obligation on women to be sexually available virtually without limit,   though sex may be culturally proscribed at certain times, such as after childbirth or during menstruation.
In societies where the ideology of male superiority is strong, emphasizing dominance, physical strength and male honor,[ jargon ] rape is more common.
Global trends, for instance towards free trade, have been accompanied by an increase in the movement around the world of women and girls for labor, including for sex work.
Rape culture Rape culture is a term used within women's studies and feminism , describing a culture in which rape and other sexual violence usually against women are common and in which prevalent attitudes , norms , practices, and media condone, normalize , excuse, or encourage sexualized violence. Within the paradigm , acts of sexism are commonly employed to validate and rationalize normative misogynistic practices; for instance, sexist jokes may be told to foster disrespect for women and an accompanying disregard for their well-being, which ultimately make their rape and abuse seem "acceptable".
Examples of behaviors said to typify rape culture include victim blaming , trivializing prison rape , and sexual objectification. Rape culture as a concept and social reality was explored in detail in the film Rape Culture , produced by Margaret Lazarus and Renner Wunderlich for Cambridge Documentary Films.
Gender based socialization and sexual scripts[ edit ] Studies of college-aged sexually active men and women show they often conceptualize men as sexual initiators and women as sexual gatekeepers. The implied message is that men should persist beyond a woman's protest and women should say "no" even if they desire sex Muehlenhard and McCoy, The more traditional the society, the closer the adherence to this sexual script.
In studies, young males from Cambodia , Mexico , Peru and South Africa , reported that they have participated in incidents where girls were coerced into sex such as gang rapes and that they did so as a way to prove their masculinity to their friends, or under peer pressure and fear that they would be rejected if they didn't participate in the assault. They argue that pornography eroticizes the domination, humiliation, and coercion of women, and reinforces sexual and cultural attitudes that are complicit in rape and sexual harassment.
The anti-pornography feminist, Andrea Dworkin , has famously argued this point in her controversial Pornography: Men Possessing Women Sociobiological theories of rape Males who under some circumstances used force may have had greater reproductive success in the ancestral environment than males who did not employ force.
Such theories are highly controversial, as traditional theories typically do not consider rape to be a behavioral adaptation. Some object to such theories on ethical, religious, political as well as scientific grounds. Others argue that a correct knowledge of the causes of rape is necessary in order to develop effective preventive measures. There is extensive research on the forced sex among non-human animals.