Newspaper — A newspaper is a serial publication containing news about current events, other informative articles about politics, sports, arts, and so on, and advertising. A newspaper is usually, but not exclusively, printed on relatively inexpensive, the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves often metonymically called newspapers.
As of , most newspapers are now published online as well as in print, the online versions are called online newspapers or news websites. Newspapers are typically published daily or weekly, News magazines are also weekly, but they have a magazine format.
General-interest newspapers typically publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news, typically the paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Papers also include articles which have no byline, these articles are written by staff writers, a wide variety of material has been published in newspapers.
As of , newspapers may also provide information about new movies, most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, and advertising revenue. Some newspapers are government-run or at least government-funded, their reliance on advertising revenue, the editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government.
Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high quality. This is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world, circa , there were approximately 6, daily newspaper titles in the world selling million print copies a day.
Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has also challenged the business models of the era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more specifically, journalism.
In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles from online newspapers. Increasing paywalling of online newspapers may be counteracting those effects, the oldest newspaper still published is the Gazzetta di Mantova, which was established in Mantua in While online newspapers have increased access to newspapers by people with Internet access, literacy is also a factor which prevents people who cannot read from being able to benefit from reading newspapers.
Periodicity, They are published at intervals, typically daily or weekly. This ensures that newspapers can provide information on newly-emerging news stories or events, currency, Its information is as up to date as its publication schedule allows 2. Tabloid newspaper format — A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet.
There is no standard size for this newspaper format, the term tabloid journalism refers to an emphasis on such topics as sensational crime stories, astrology, celebrity gossip and television, and is not a reference to newspapers printed in this format.
Some small-format papers with a standard of journalism refer to themselves as compact newspapers. Larger newspapers, traditionally associated with higher-quality journalism, are called broadsheets, in common usage, tabloid and broadsheet are frequently more descriptive of a newspapers market position than physical format.
The Berliner format used by many prominent European newspapers is sized between the tabloid and the broadsheet, in a newspaper context, the term Berliner is generally used only to describe size, not to refer to other qualities of the publication. A item in Londons Westminister Gazette noted, The proprietor intends to give in tabloid form all the news printed by other journals, thus tabloid journalism in originally meant a paper that condensed stories into a simplified, easily absorbed format.
The term preceded the reference to smaller sheet newspapers that contained the condensed stories, a tabloid is defined as roughly 17 by 11 inches and commonly half the size of a broadsheet.
Tabloid newspapers, especially in the United Kingdom, boast a very high degree of variation as far as target market, political alignment, editorial style, thus, various terms have been coined to describe the subtypes of this versatile paper format.
There are, broadly, two types of tabloid newspaper, red top and compact. The distinction is largely of editorial style, both red top and compact tabloids span the width of the spectrum from socialism to capitalist conservatism.
The red top tabloid is, for many, the example of the format. Red tops tend to be written with a simplistic, straightforward vocabulary and grammar, their layout, more often than not, in the extreme case, red top tabloids have been accused of lying or misrepresenting the truth to increase circulation. In contrast to red top tabloids, compacts use a style more closely associated with broadsheet newspapers.
In fact, most compact tabloids formerly used the paper size. The term compact was coined in the s by the Daily Mail, one of the newspapers to make the change. The purpose behind this was to avoid the association of the word tabloid with the flamboyant, the early converts from broadsheet format made the change in the s, two notable British papers that took this step at the time were the Daily Mail and the Daily Express 3.
It is Britains biggest newspaper group, publishing regional papers as well as the national Daily Mirror, Sunday Mirror and People, since purchasing Local World in November , it has gained 83 print publications. The Daily Mirror was launched by Alfred Harmsworth for gentlewomen in , the company was first listed on the London Stock Exchange on 2 December Trinity was a company which evolved from the Liverpool Daily Post and Echo which owned newspaper titles in Canada, in the early s, it was suggested that the Press Association should be floated on the market.
It turned out that the Liverpool Daily Post and Echo had a substantial historic share holding in PA, the previous business strategy of the Liverpool operation was to have control over the complete process of newspaper production.
Hence it bought paper mills in Canada, owned its own distribution company. The shareholders appointed David Sneddon as Chief Executive and he divested the company of all other than producing newspapers. At the time the Liverpool Echo, despite the economic conditions on Merseyside was considered to be one of the most profitable newspapers in the UK.
This cannot be verified independently because the company was adept at concealing its profit centres, the only verification is from the writer of this passage who was there at the time and the subsequent expansion of the business built upon the Echos profitability. From there the company, which was cash-rich, went on to buy out many regional newspaper groups, many of these deals were subject to Monopolies and Mergers scrutiny. As part of this business purchasing strategy they eventually acquired the Daily Mirror group, and as this was a national title.
During the company introduced a number of measures to manage discretionary spending more carefully, in the company sought to sell a number of titles, the Reading Chronicle was sold to Berkshire Media Group and 25 Trinity Mirror South titles were sold to Northcliffe Media.
On 1 October it was announced that the sale of the Racing Post had been completed, in September the company announced that it would be closing the printing plant in Liverpool after years of printing in the city, and transferring the work to Oldham 4. Derby — Derby is a city and unitary authority area in Derbyshire, England. It lies on the banks of the River Derwent in the south of Derbyshire, at the census, the population was , Derby gained city status in , Derby was settled by Romans — who established the town of Derventio — Saxons and Vikings, who made Derby one of the Five Boroughs of the Danelaw.
Initially a market town, Derby grew rapidly in the industrial era, home to Lombes Mill, an early British factory, Derby has a claim to be one of the birthplaces of the Industrial Revolution. With the arrival of the railways in the 19th century, Derby became a centre of the British rail industry, Toyota Manufacturing UKs automobile headquarters is south west of the city at Burnaston.
The name Derwent is Celtic and means a valley thick with oaks, the town name appears, nevertheless, as Darby or Darbye on early modern maps, such as that of Speed. Modern research into the history and archaeology of Derby has provided evidence that the Vikings and Anglo-Saxons probably co-existed, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that Derby is divided by water.
A hundred years later, Bonnie Prince Charlie set up camp at Derby on 4 December , the prince called at The George Inn on Irongate, where the Duke of Devonshire had set up his headquarters, and demanded billets for his 9, troops.
He stayed at Exeter House, Full Street where he held his council of war, a replica of the room is on display at Derby Museum in the city centre. He had received misleading information about a coming to meet him south of Derby. Although he wished to continue with his quest, he was over-ruled by his fellow officers and he abandoned his invasion at Swarkestone Bridge on the River Trent just a few miles south of Derby.
Derby and Derbyshire were among the centres of Britains Industrial Revolution, in , Jedediah Strutt patented and built a machine called the Derby Rib Attachment that revolutionised the manufacture of hose.
This attachment was used on the Rev. The patent was obtained in January , after three years, Bloodworth and Stafford were paid off, and Samuel Need — a hosier of Nottingham — joined the partnership 5. England — England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest.
England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England.
However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape.
An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins.
Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately , years ago.
The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from , years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6, years 6. Known as Jack, Keene trained at Derby Central School of Art from to , Keene managed the family business with his brother Charles after their fathers death.
This club late had Keene as its president and it still meets today, keenes paintings were collected by Alfred E. Goodey who eventually purchased 77 of them. Goodey gave his collection of paintings to Derby Museum in 7.
The collection includes a gallery displaying paintings by Joseph Wright of Derby, there is also a large display of Royal Crown Derby and other porcelain from Derby. Further displays include archaeology, natural history, geology and military collections, the Art Gallery was opened in The museum can trace its start to the formation of the Derby Town and County Museum, the society was housed by Full Street Public Baths but it was a private society funded by its members subscriptions.
George Gawler contributed a collection of minerals and exotic stuffed birds which included an albatross from his time as governor in South Australia, in a major exhibition was held at the Mechanics Institute which contained many items including those from Joseph Strutts collection. Many of these made their way into Derby Museums collection, the society moved in to the Athenaeum in Victoria Street. The societys collections grew in and they were first offered for incorporation into the town by William Mundy, in , Llewellyn Jewitt became secretary and the museum was opened to the general public on Saturday mornings.
In the Derby Philosophical Society moved to a house on the Wardwick in Derby as it merged with what was called the Derby Town and County Museum and this move included the societys library of 4, volumes, mathematical and scientific apparatus and its collection of fossils. In the botanist Alexander Croall was appointed the first Librarian and Curator, Croall left in to become the curator of the Smith Institute in Stirling.
The Derby Town and County Museum was finally transferred into the ownership of Derby Corporation in , after placing all the artefacts into storage for three years, the museum was finally opened to the public on 28 June The Art Gallery opened in and in the museum had electricity supplied for new lighting, in the museum was given a substantial collection of paintings by Alfred E. Goodey who had been collecting art for 50 years. Refurbishment to parts of both the new and old buildings were undertaken in —11, Derby was significant in the eighteenth century for its role in the Enlightenment, a period in which science and philosophy challenged the divine right of kings to rule.
It was this society which helped to found the first library in Derby, some of the paintings by Joseph Wright of Derby, which are renowned for their use of light and shade, are of Lunar Society members. The Derby Gallery possesses over sketches and 34 oil paintings by Wright, one of the paintings is entitled The Alchymist in Search of the Philosophers Stone and it depicts the discovery of the element phosphorus by German alchemist Hennig Brand in A flask into which a quantity of urine has been boiled down is seen bursting into light as the phosphorus 8.
Broadsheet — A broadsheet is the largest newspaper format and is characterized by long vertical pages. The term derives from types of popular prints usually just of a sheet, sold on the streets and containing various types of material.
South African broadsheet newspapers have a spread sheet size of by mm or However, in efforts to save newsprint costs many U. Many rate cards and specification cards refer to the size with dimensions representing the front page half of a broadsheet size, rather than the full. Some quote actual page size and others quote the area size. The two versions of the broadsheet are, Full broadsheet — The full broadsheet typically is folded vertically in half so that it forms four pages, the four pages are called a spread.