Ten years after his first revelation in Mount Hira ,  a delegation consisting of the representatives of the twelve important clans of Medina pledged to physically protect Muhammad and invited him as a neutral outsider to Medina to serve as chief arbitrator for the entire community, which had been fighting with each other for around a hundred years and was in need of an authority.
The community defined in the Constitution of Medina had a religious outlook but was also shaped by the practical considerations and substantially preserved the legal forms of the old Arab tribes. According to Alford Welch, the Jewish practice of having three daily prayer rituals appears to have been a factor in the introduction of the Islamic midday prayer but that Muhammad's adoption of facing north towards Qiblah position of Jerusalem - Islam's first Qiblah or direction of prayer, which subsequently changed to face the Kabah in Mecca when performing the daily prayers however was also practiced among other groups in Arabia.
Many Medinans converted to the faith of the Meccan immigrants, particularly pagan and polytheist tribes, but there were fewer Jewish converts. Moreover, Maimonides asserted that Muhammad's claim to prophethood was in itself what disqualified him, because it contradicted the prophecy of Moses, the Torah and the Oral Tradition.
His argument further asserted that Muhammad being illiterate also disqualified him from being a prophet. A significant narrative symbolising the inter-faith harmony between early Muslims and Jews is that of the Rabbi Mukhayriq.
The Rabbi was from Banu Nadir and fought alongside Muslims at the Battle of Uhud and bequeathed his entire wealth to Muhammad in the case of his death. Jewish violations of the Constitution of Medina, by aiding the enemies of the community, finally brought on major battles of Badr and Uhud  which resulted in Muslim victories and the exile of the Banu Qainuqa and Banu Nadir, two of the main three Jewish tribes from Medina, and the mass slaughtering of all male adults of Banu Qurayza.
Other prophets Both regard many people as being prophets with exceptions. Both teach Eber , Job , and Joseph were prophets. Historical interaction Main article: History of the Jews under Muslim rule Jews have often lived in predominantly Islamic nations. Since many national borders have changed over the fourteen centuries of Islamic history , a single community, such as the Jewish community in Cairo , may have been contained in a number of different nations over different periods.
In the Iberian Peninsula , under Muslim rule, Jews were able to make great advances in mathematics, astronomy, philosophy, chemistry and philology. The Pact of Umar was a set of guidelines placed upon Jews in Islamic territories, many of them being very restrictive and prohibitive.
However, compared to Jews of Western Christendom at the time, Jews under Islamic rule were generally treated with more compassion and understanding, rather than violence and abhorrence.
Many Jews had their own businesses and were even ranking officials within the government. However, Jews still experienced tense and violent times - they were often discriminated against and, as a result, were often the recipient of many violent acts placed upon them. Conversion of Jews to Islam According to Judaism, Jews that voluntarily convert to Islam commit a treacherous act of heresy in abandoning the Torah.
In modern times, some notable converts to Islam from a Jewish background include Muhammad Asad b. Leopold Weiss , Abdallah Schleifer b. More than Israeli Jews converted to Islam between and However, certain rulers did historically enact forced conversions for political reasons and religious reasons in regards to youth and orphans. A number of groups who converted from Judaism to Islam have remained Muslim, while maintaining a connection to and interest in their Jewish heritage.
These groups include the anusim or Daggataun of Timbuktu who converted in , when Askia Muhammed came to power in Timbuktu and decreed that Jews must convert to Islam or leave,  and the Chala, a portion of the Bukharan Jewish community who were pressured and many times forced to convert to Islam. In , an Islamic edict was issued overturning these forced conversions , and the Jews returned to practicing Judaism openly. Jews in Yemen also had to face oppression, during which persecution reached its climax in the 17th century when nearly all Jewish communities in Yemen were given the choice of either converting to Islam or of being banished to a remote desert area, and which later became known as the Mawza Exile.
Similarly, to end a pogrom in , the Jews of Mashhad were forced to convert en masse to Islam. They practiced Judaism secretly for over a century before openly returning to their faith. At the turn of the 21st century, around 10, lived in Israel , another 4, in New York City, and 1, elsewhere. In Turkey , the claimed messiah Sabbatai Zevi was forced to convert to Islam in Conversion of Muslims to Judaism Judaism does not proselytize, and often discourages conversion to Judaism; maintaining that all people have a covenant with God, and instead encourages non-Jews to uphold the Seven Laws which it believes were given to Noah.
Conversions to Judaism are therefore relatively rare, including those from the Islamic world. One famous Muslim who converted to Judaism was Ovadyah , famous from his contact with Maimonides. Iran's Jewish community is officially recognized as a religious minority group by the government, and, like the Zoroastrians , they were allocated a seat in the Iranian parliament. In it was estimated that at that time there were still 30,—35, Jews in Iran; other sources put the figure as low as 20,—25, A Jewish businessman was hanged for helping Jews emigrate.
Israel was admitted as a member of the United Nations on 11 May Though there is also a different perspective on Jewish contributions and influence. Formal exchanges between the three religions, modeled on the decades-old Jewish—Christian interfaith dialogue groups, became common in American cities following the Israeli—Palestinian Oslo accords. The governments of Jordan and Qatar have been particularly active in fostering dialogue between Muslims and Jews, through conferences and institutes.
Back in Egypt, he was interviewed on an Arabic-language Web site, charging that the "Zionist media" had covered up Jewish responsibility for the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. He agreed with Osama bin Laden's accusations in bin Laden's Letter to America, claiming that Jews were guilty of "disseminating corruption, heresy, homosexuality, alcoholism, and drugs.
Each November the Foundation hosts the Weekend of Twinning which encourages Muslims and Jews, Imams and Rabbis, Mosques and synagogues, and Muslim and Jewish organizations to hold joint programming inspired by the commonalities between Muslims and Jews.
At the service the imam was quoted as saying, "We emphasize the condemnation of all persons, whoever they be, who have carried out this inhuman act. Some Jewish community leaders cite the statements as the latest evidence that Muslim-Jewish dialogue is futile in today's charged atmosphere.
John Rosove, senior rabbi of Temple Israel of Hollywood , and other Jewish participants withdrew from the three-year-old Muslim-Jewish dialogue group after one of the Muslim participants, Salam al-Marayati of MPAC , suggested in a radio interview that Israel should be put on the list of suspects behind the 11 September attacks. Imam Fawaz Damra calls for "directing all the rifles at the first and last enemy of the Islamic nation and that is the sons of monkeys and pigs, the Jews.
Jewish organizations there have established good relations with a religious group called the Islamic Supreme Council of North America. In Los Angeles there has been a formation of an interfaith think tank through the partnership of neighboring institutions the University of Southern California , The Hebrew Union College , and Omar Foundation. The Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement has an extensive online resource center with scholarly works on similar topics from Muslim and Jewish perspectives.
The Center of Muslim-Jewish Engagement has begun to launch an interfaith religious text-study group to build bonds and form a positive community promoting interfaith relations. As Islam developed it gradually became the major religion closest to Judaism, both of them being strictly Monotheist religious traditions originating in a Semitic Middle Eastern culture.
As opposed to Christianity , which originated from interaction between ancient Greek and Hebrew cultures, Islam is similar to Judaism in its fundamental religious outlook, structure, jurisprudence and practice. There are many traditions within Islam originating from traditions within the Hebrew Bible or from postbiblical Jewish traditions. These practices are known collectively as the Isra'iliyat.