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O/online dating service direct 164 txt 164

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Schulzrinne Request for Comments: Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" STD 1 for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited. The "tel" URI describes resources identified by telephone numbers. This document obsoletes RFC Table of Contents 1. Phone Numbers and Their Context. Separators in Phone Numbers. Alphabetic Characters Corresponding to Digits. Why Not Distinguish between Call Types?.

Changes Since RFC Introduction This document defines the URI scheme "tel", which describes resources identified by telephone numbers. A telephone number is a string of decimal digits that uniquely indicates the network termination point. The number contains the information necessary to route the call to this point. This definition is derived from [ E. The termination point of the "tel" URI telephone number is not restricted.

It can be in the public telephone network, a private telephone network, or the Internet. It can be fixed or wireless and address a fixed wired, mobile, or nomadic terminal. The terminal addressed can support any electronic communication service ECS , including voice, data, and fax.

The URI can refer to resources identified by a telephone number, including but not limited to originators or targets of a telephone call. The "tel" URI is a globally unique identifier "name" only; it does not describe the steps necessary to reach a particular number and does not imply dialling semantics.

Furthermore, it does not refer to a specific physical device, only to a telephone number. As commonly understood, telephone numbers comprise two related but distinct concepts: We define the concepts below: The telephone number is understood here as the canonical address-of-record or identifier for a termination point within a specific network. For the public network, these numbers follow the rules in E.

Subscribers publish these identifiers so that they can be reached, regardless of the location of the caller. Also, a single termination point may be reachable from different networks and may have multiple identifiers.

A dial string is consumed by one or more network entities and understood in the context of the configuration of these entities. It is used to generate an address-of-record or identifier in the sense described above so that a call can be routed.

Dial strings may require prepended digits to exit the private branch exchange PBX the end system is connected to, and they may include post-dial dual-tone multi-frequency DTMF signaling that could control an interactive voice response IVR system or reach an extension.

Dial strings are beyond the scope of this document. Both approaches can be expressed as a URI. For dial strings, this URI is passed to an entity that can reproduce the actions specified in the dial string. For example, in an analog phone system, a dialer translates the dial string into a sequence of actions such as waiting for dial tone, sending DTMF digits, pausing, and generating post-dial DTMF digits after the callee picks up.

As noted, this approach is beyond the scope of this specification. The approach described here has the URI specify the telephone number as an identifier, which can be either globally unique or only valid within a local context. The dialling application is aware of the local context, knowing, for example, whether special digits need to be dialed to seize an outside line; whether network, pulse, or tone dialling is needed; and what tones indicate call progress.

The dialling application then converts the telephone number into a dial sequence and performs the necessary signaling actions. The dialer does not have to be a user application as found in traditional desktop operating systems but could well be part of an IP-to-PSTN gateway. To reach a telephone number from a phone on a PBX, for example, the user of that phone has to know how to convert the telephone number identifier into a dial string appropriate for that phone.

The telephone number itself does not convey what needs to be done for a particular terminal. Instructions may include dialling "9" before placing a call or prepending "00" to reach a number in a foreign country. The phone may also need to strip area and country codes. Other protocols may also use this URI scheme. The "tel" URI does not specify the call type, such as voice, fax, or data call, and does not provide the connection parameters for a data call.

The type and parameters are assumed to be negotiated either in-band by the telephone device or through a signaling protocol such as SIP. The "tel" URI has the following syntax: The 'isdn- subaddress' or 'extension' MUST appear first, if present, followed by the 'context' parameter, if present, followed by any other parameters in lexicographical order.

The latter is compared after removing all 'visual- separator' characters. Phone Numbers and Their Context 5. The phone number can be represented in either global E. All phone numbers MUST use the global form unless they cannot be represented as such. Numbers from private numbering plans, emergency "", "" , and some directory-assistance numbers e.

Local numbers MUST be tagged with a 'phone-context' section 5. Implementations MUST NOT assume that telephone numbers have a maximum, minimum, or fixed length, or that they always begin with or contain certain digits.

Visual separators 'visual-separator' merely aid readability and are not used for URI comparison or placing a call. Although it complicates comparisons, this specification retains visual separators in order to follow the spirit of RFC [ RFC ], which remarks that "A URI often needs to be remembered by people, and it is easier for people to remember a URI when it consists of meaningful components". Alphabetic Characters Corresponding to Digits In some countries, it is common to write phone numbers with alphabetic characters corresponding to certain numbers on the telephone keypad.

The URI format does not support this notation, as the mapping from alphabetic characters to digits is not completely uniform internationally, although there are standards [ E. However, in accordance with E. Their meaning in local numbers is not defined here, but they are not prohibited. Local Numbers Local numbers are unique only within a certain geographical area or a certain part of the telephone network, e.

URIs with local phone numbers should only appear in environments where all local entities can successfully set up the call by passing the number to the dialling software. Digits needed for accessing an outside line, for example, are not included in local numbers. Local numbers require that the originator and recipient are configured appropriately so that they can insert and recognize the correct context descriptors.

Since there is no algorithm to pick the same descriptor independently, labelling numbers with their context increases the chances of misconfiguration so that valid identifiers are rejected by mistake. The algorithm to select descriptors was chosen so that accidental collisions would be rare, but they cannot be ruled out. Local numbers MUST have a 'phone-context' parameter that identifies the scope of their validity. The parameter MUST be chosen to identify the local context within which the number is unique unambiguously.

Thus, the combination of the descriptor in the 'phone-context' parameter and local number is again globally unique. The parameter value is defined by the assignee of the local number. It does NOT indicate a prefix that turns the local number into a global E. There are two ways to label the context: The choice between the two is left to the "owner" of the local number and is governed by whether there is a global number or domain name that is a valid identifier for a particular local number.

The domain name does not have to resolve to any actual host but MUST be under the administrative control of the entity managing the local phone context. A global number context consists of the initial digits of a valid global number. All global numbers with these initial digits must be assigned to the same organization, and no such matching number can be used by any other organization. This can occur if two organizations share the same decimal block of numbers.

It is not required that local numbers within the context actually begin with the chosen set of initial numbers. A context consisting of the initial digits of a global number does not imply that adding these to the local number will generate a valid E. It might do so by coincidence, but this cannot be relied upon. National freephone numbers do not need a context, even though they are not necessarily reachable from outside a particular country code or numbering plan. Recall that "tel" URIs are identifiers; it is sufficient that a global number is unique, but it is not required that it be reachable from everywhere.

Even non-freephone numbers may be out of date or may not be reachable from a particular location. For example, premium services such as "" numbers in the North American numbering plan are often not dialable from outside the particular country code. The two label types were chosen so that, in almost all cases, a local administrator can pick an identifier that is reasonably descriptive and does not require a new IANA-managed assigned number.

It is up to the administrator to assign an appropriate identifier and to use it consistently. Often, an organization can choose among several different identifiers. If the recipient of a "tel" URI uses it simply for identification, the receiver does not need to know anything about the context descriptor. It simply treats it as one part of a globally unique identifier, with the other being the local number.

If a recipient of the URI intends to place a call to the local number, it MUST understand the context and be able to place calls within that context. They are identified with the 'extension' parameter.

At most, one of the 'isdn-subaddress' and 'extension' parameters can appear in a "tel" URI, i. Such parameters can be either mandatory or optional. Mandatory parameters start with "m-". The "m-" prefix cannot be added to parameters that were already registered except to create a new, logically distinct parameter. The "phone-context" parameter in this document is mandatory, and "isub" and "ext" are optional.

New mandatory parameters must be described in a standards-track RFC, but an informational RFC is sufficient for optional parameters.

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O/online dating service direct 164 txt 164

Schulzrinne Request for Comments: Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet Official Protocol Standards" STD 1 for the standardization state and status of this protocol. Distribution of this memo is unlimited. The "tel" URI describes resources identified by telephone numbers. This document obsoletes RFC Table of Contents 1. Phone Numbers and Their Context. Separators in Phone Numbers. Alphabetic Characters Corresponding to Digits. Why Not Distinguish between Call Types?.

Changes Since RFC Introduction This document defines the URI scheme "tel", which describes resources identified by telephone numbers. A telephone number is a string of decimal digits that uniquely indicates the network termination point.

The number contains the information necessary to route the call to this point. This definition is derived from [ E. The termination point of the "tel" URI telephone number is not restricted.

It can be in the public telephone network, a private telephone network, or the Internet. It can be fixed or wireless and address a fixed wired, mobile, or nomadic terminal. The terminal addressed can support any electronic communication service ECS , including voice, data, and fax. The URI can refer to resources identified by a telephone number, including but not limited to originators or targets of a telephone call. The "tel" URI is a globally unique identifier "name" only; it does not describe the steps necessary to reach a particular number and does not imply dialling semantics.

Furthermore, it does not refer to a specific physical device, only to a telephone number. As commonly understood, telephone numbers comprise two related but distinct concepts: We define the concepts below: The telephone number is understood here as the canonical address-of-record or identifier for a termination point within a specific network.

For the public network, these numbers follow the rules in E. Subscribers publish these identifiers so that they can be reached, regardless of the location of the caller. Also, a single termination point may be reachable from different networks and may have multiple identifiers. A dial string is consumed by one or more network entities and understood in the context of the configuration of these entities.

It is used to generate an address-of-record or identifier in the sense described above so that a call can be routed. Dial strings may require prepended digits to exit the private branch exchange PBX the end system is connected to, and they may include post-dial dual-tone multi-frequency DTMF signaling that could control an interactive voice response IVR system or reach an extension.

Dial strings are beyond the scope of this document. Both approaches can be expressed as a URI. For dial strings, this URI is passed to an entity that can reproduce the actions specified in the dial string. For example, in an analog phone system, a dialer translates the dial string into a sequence of actions such as waiting for dial tone, sending DTMF digits, pausing, and generating post-dial DTMF digits after the callee picks up.

As noted, this approach is beyond the scope of this specification. The approach described here has the URI specify the telephone number as an identifier, which can be either globally unique or only valid within a local context.

The dialling application is aware of the local context, knowing, for example, whether special digits need to be dialed to seize an outside line; whether network, pulse, or tone dialling is needed; and what tones indicate call progress. The dialling application then converts the telephone number into a dial sequence and performs the necessary signaling actions. The dialer does not have to be a user application as found in traditional desktop operating systems but could well be part of an IP-to-PSTN gateway.

To reach a telephone number from a phone on a PBX, for example, the user of that phone has to know how to convert the telephone number identifier into a dial string appropriate for that phone. The telephone number itself does not convey what needs to be done for a particular terminal. Instructions may include dialling "9" before placing a call or prepending "00" to reach a number in a foreign country. The phone may also need to strip area and country codes. Other protocols may also use this URI scheme.

The "tel" URI does not specify the call type, such as voice, fax, or data call, and does not provide the connection parameters for a data call. The type and parameters are assumed to be negotiated either in-band by the telephone device or through a signaling protocol such as SIP. The "tel" URI has the following syntax: The 'isdn- subaddress' or 'extension' MUST appear first, if present, followed by the 'context' parameter, if present, followed by any other parameters in lexicographical order.

The latter is compared after removing all 'visual- separator' characters. Phone Numbers and Their Context 5. The phone number can be represented in either global E. All phone numbers MUST use the global form unless they cannot be represented as such. Numbers from private numbering plans, emergency "", "" , and some directory-assistance numbers e.

Local numbers MUST be tagged with a 'phone-context' section 5. Implementations MUST NOT assume that telephone numbers have a maximum, minimum, or fixed length, or that they always begin with or contain certain digits. Visual separators 'visual-separator' merely aid readability and are not used for URI comparison or placing a call. Although it complicates comparisons, this specification retains visual separators in order to follow the spirit of RFC [ RFC ], which remarks that "A URI often needs to be remembered by people, and it is easier for people to remember a URI when it consists of meaningful components".

Alphabetic Characters Corresponding to Digits In some countries, it is common to write phone numbers with alphabetic characters corresponding to certain numbers on the telephone keypad. The URI format does not support this notation, as the mapping from alphabetic characters to digits is not completely uniform internationally, although there are standards [ E.

However, in accordance with E. Their meaning in local numbers is not defined here, but they are not prohibited. Local Numbers Local numbers are unique only within a certain geographical area or a certain part of the telephone network, e. URIs with local phone numbers should only appear in environments where all local entities can successfully set up the call by passing the number to the dialling software.

Digits needed for accessing an outside line, for example, are not included in local numbers. Local numbers require that the originator and recipient are configured appropriately so that they can insert and recognize the correct context descriptors.

Since there is no algorithm to pick the same descriptor independently, labelling numbers with their context increases the chances of misconfiguration so that valid identifiers are rejected by mistake.

The algorithm to select descriptors was chosen so that accidental collisions would be rare, but they cannot be ruled out. Local numbers MUST have a 'phone-context' parameter that identifies the scope of their validity. The parameter MUST be chosen to identify the local context within which the number is unique unambiguously. Thus, the combination of the descriptor in the 'phone-context' parameter and local number is again globally unique. The parameter value is defined by the assignee of the local number.

It does NOT indicate a prefix that turns the local number into a global E. There are two ways to label the context: The choice between the two is left to the "owner" of the local number and is governed by whether there is a global number or domain name that is a valid identifier for a particular local number. The domain name does not have to resolve to any actual host but MUST be under the administrative control of the entity managing the local phone context. A global number context consists of the initial digits of a valid global number.

All global numbers with these initial digits must be assigned to the same organization, and no such matching number can be used by any other organization. This can occur if two organizations share the same decimal block of numbers. It is not required that local numbers within the context actually begin with the chosen set of initial numbers.

A context consisting of the initial digits of a global number does not imply that adding these to the local number will generate a valid E. It might do so by coincidence, but this cannot be relied upon. National freephone numbers do not need a context, even though they are not necessarily reachable from outside a particular country code or numbering plan.

Recall that "tel" URIs are identifiers; it is sufficient that a global number is unique, but it is not required that it be reachable from everywhere. Even non-freephone numbers may be out of date or may not be reachable from a particular location. For example, premium services such as "" numbers in the North American numbering plan are often not dialable from outside the particular country code.

The two label types were chosen so that, in almost all cases, a local administrator can pick an identifier that is reasonably descriptive and does not require a new IANA-managed assigned number. It is up to the administrator to assign an appropriate identifier and to use it consistently. Often, an organization can choose among several different identifiers. If the recipient of a "tel" URI uses it simply for identification, the receiver does not need to know anything about the context descriptor.

It simply treats it as one part of a globally unique identifier, with the other being the local number. If a recipient of the URI intends to place a call to the local number, it MUST understand the context and be able to place calls within that context.

They are identified with the 'extension' parameter. At most, one of the 'isdn-subaddress' and 'extension' parameters can appear in a "tel" URI, i. Such parameters can be either mandatory or optional. Mandatory parameters start with "m-". The "m-" prefix cannot be added to parameters that were already registered except to create a new, logically distinct parameter. The "phone-context" parameter in this document is mandatory, and "isub" and "ext" are optional. New mandatory parameters must be described in a standards-track RFC, but an informational RFC is sufficient for optional parameters.

O/online dating service direct 164 txt 164

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5 Comments

  1. Application Review Information Important Update: A global number context consists of the initial digits of a valid global number.

  2. The dialer does not have to be a user application as found in traditional desktop operating systems but could well be part of an IP-to-PSTN gateway. B A covered entity that is a limited data set recipient and violates a data use agreement will be in noncompliance with the standards, implementation specifications, and requirements of paragraph e of this section.

  3. The "tel" URI does not specify the call type, such as voice, fax, or data call, and does not provide the connection parameters for a data call. Resubmissions For Resubmissions, the committee will evaluate the application as now presented, taking into consideration the responses to comments from the previous scientific review group and changes made to the project.

  4. The multi-project application should be viewed as a confederation of interrelated research projects, each capable of standing on its own scientific merit, but complementary to one another.

  5. Dial strings may require prepended digits to exit the private branch exchange PBX the end system is connected to, and they may include post-dial dual-tone multi-frequency DTMF signaling that could control an interactive voice response IVR system or reach an extension.

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