Chinese nationalism The awakening of nationalism across Asia helped shape the history of the continent. The key episode was the decisive defeat of Russia by Japan in , demonstrating the military superiority of non-Europeans in a modern war.
The defeat which quickly led to manifestations of a new interest in nationalism in China, as well as Turkey, and Persia. It was a nationwide protest movement about the domestic backwardness of China and has often been depicted as the intellectual foundation for Chinese Communism. According to historian Patricia Ebrey: Nationalism, patriotism, progress, science, democracy, and freedom were the goals; imperialism, feudalism, warlordism, autocracy, patriarchy, and blind adherence to tradition were the enemies.
Intellectuals struggled with how to be strong and modern and yet Chinese, how to preserve China as a political entity in the world of competing nations.
African nationalism and History of Africa Kenneth Kaunda , an anti-colonial political leader from Zambia , pictured at a nationalist rally in colonial Northern Rhodesia now Zambia in In the s the European powers divided up almost all of Africa only Ethiopia and Liberia were independent. They ruled until after World War II when forces of nationalism grew much stronger.
In the s and s the colonial holdings became independent states. The process was usually peaceful but there were several long bitter bloody civil wars, as in Algeria,  Kenya  and elsewhere. Across Africa nationalism drew upon the organizational skills that natives learned in the British and French and other armies in the world wars. It led to organizations that were not controlled by or endorsed by either the colonial powers not the traditional local power structures that were collaborating with the colonial powers.
Nationalistic organizations began to challenge both the traditional and the new colonial structures and finally displaced them. Leaders of nationalist movements took control when the European authorities exited; many ruled for decades or until they died off.
These structures included political, educational, religious, and other social organizations. In recent decades, many African countries have undergone the triumph and defeat of nationalistic fervor, changing in the process the loci of the centralizing state power and patrimonial state.
From to , it was controlled by white Afrikaner nationalists focused on racial segregation and white minority rule known officially as apartheid. The black nationalist movement fought them until success was achieved by the African National Congress in and Nelson Mandela was elected President.
As the Ottoman Empire declined and the Middle East was carved up by the Great Powers of Europe, Arabs sought to establish their own independent nations ruled by Arabs rather than foreigners.
Syria was established in ; Transjordan later Jordan gradually gained independence between and ; Saudi Arabia was established in ; and Egypt achieved gradually gained independence between and The Arab League was established in to promote Arab interests and cooperation between the new Arab states.
Parallel to these efforts was the Zionist movement which emerged among European Jews in the 19th century. Beginning in Jews, predominantly from Europe, began emigrating to Ottoman Palestine with the goal of establishing a new Jewish homeland. The effort culminated in the declaration of the State of Israel in As this move conflicted with the belief among Arab nationalists that Palestine was part of the Arab nation, the neighboring Arab nations launched an invasion to claim the region.
The invasion was only partly successful and led to decades of clashes between the Arab and Jewish nationalist ideologies. Post-Communism[ edit ] There was a rise in extreme nationalism after the collapse of communism in the s. When communism fell, it left many people with no identity. The people under communist rule had to integrate, and found themselves free to choose.
Given free choice, long dormant conflicts rose up and created sources of serious conflict. In his article Jihad vs. McWorld, Benjamin Barber proposed that the fall of communism will cause large numbers of people to search for unity and that small scale wars will become common; groups will attempt to redraw boundaries, identities, cultures and ideologies.
Academic Steven Berg felt that at the root of nationalist conflicts is the demand for autonomy and a separate existence. The national census numbers for a ten-year span — measured an increase from 1. Within Yugoslavia, separating Croatia and Slovenia from the rest of Yugoslavia is an invisible line of previous conquests of the region. Croatia and Slovenia to the northwest were conquered by Catholics or Protestants, and benefited from European history; the Renaissance, French Revolution, Industrial Revolution and are more inclined towards democracy.
In the s the leadership of the separate territories within Yugoslavia protected only territorial interests at the expense of other territories. In Croatia, there was almost a split within the territory between Serbs and Croats so any political decision would kindle unrest, and tensions could cross the territories adjacent; Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Political organizations were not able to deal successfully with such diverse nationalism. Within the territories the leadership could not compromise. To do so would create a winner in one ethnic group and a loser in another, raising the possibility of a serious conflict.
This strengthened the political stance promoting ethnic identities. This caused intense and divided political leadership within Yugoslavia. In the s Yugoslavia began to break into fragments. Conflict in the disputed territories was stimulated by the rise in mass nationalism and inter-ethnic hostilities. This combined with escalating violence from ethnic Albanians and Serbs within Kosovo intensified economic conditions. The ongoing conflict in Kosovo was propagandized by Communist Serbian Slobodan Milosevic to further increase Serb nationalism.
As mentioned, this nationalism did give rise to powerful emotions which grew the force of Serbian nationalism through highly nationalist demonstrations in Vojvodina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Kosovo. Within Slovenia, fear was mounting because Milosevic was using the militia to suppress a in Kosovo, what would he do to Slovenia.
In fall of tensions came to a head and Slovenia asserted its political and economic independence from Yugoslavia and seceded. In January , there was a total break with Serbia at the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, an institution conceived by Milosevic to strengthen unity and became the backdrop for the fall of communism within Yugoslavia. In August , a warning to the region was issued when ethnically divided groups attempted to alter the government structure.
The republic borders established by the Communist regime in the postwar period were extremely vulnerable to challenges from ethnic communities. Ethnic communities arose because they did not share the identity with everyone within the new post-Communist borders. The same disputes were erupting that were in place prior to Milosevic and were compounded by actions from his regime.
Also within the territory the Croats and the Serbs were in direct competition for control of government. Elections were held and increased potential conflicts between Serb and Croat nationalism. Serbia wanted to be separate and decide its own future based on its own ethnic composition.
But this would then give Kosovo encouragement to become independent from Serbia. Albanians in Kosovo were already independent from Kosovo. Serbia didn't want to let Kosovo become independent. Muslims nationalists wanted their own territory but it would require a redrawing of the map, and would threaten neighboring territories. When communism fell in Yugoslavia, serious conflict arose, which led to the rise in extreme nationalism.
Nationalism again gave rise to powerful emotions which evoked in some extreme cases, a willingness to die for what you believe in, a fight for the survival of the group.
In the six years following the collapse , people died in the Bosnian war. Please improve the article by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on the talk page. May Arab nationalism began to decline in the 21st century leading to localized nationalism, culminating in a series of revolts against authoritarian regimes between and , known as the Arab Spring.
Following these revolts, which mostly failed to improve conditions in the affected nations, Arab nationalism and even most local nationalistic movements declined dramatically.
The rise of globalism in the late 20th century led to a rise in nationalism and populism in Europe and North America. This trend was further fueled by increased terrorism in the West the September 11 attacks in the U. The result had been largely unexpected and was seen as a victory of populism. Trump's slogans "Make America Great Again" and "America First" exemplified his campaign's repudiation of globalism and its staunchly nationalistic outlook.
His unexpected victory in the election was seen as part of the same trend that had brought about the Brexit vote. The new movement has advocated re-establishing Japan as a military power and revising historical narratives to support the notion of a moral and strong Japan.
Contrary to the policies of his recent predecessors, he distanced the country from the Philippines' former ruler, the United States, and sought closer ties with China as well as Russia.
Political science[ edit ] Many political scientists have theorized about the foundations of the modern nation-state and the concept of sovereignty. The concept of nationalism in political science draws from these theoretical foundations.
Philosophers like Machiavelli , Locke , Hobbes , and Rousseau conceptualized the state as the result of a " social contract " between rulers and individuals. Many scholars believe that the development of nationalism in Europe and subsequently the modern nation-state was due to the threat of war. Jeffrey Herbst argues that the lack of external threats to countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, post-independence, is linked to weak state nationalism and state capacity.
They lack a modern self-sustainable economy, have divided authorities, and use multiple languages resulting in many groups being unable to communicate with each other. Maine saw the development of societies as moving away from traditional status societies to modern contract societies. While he recognized the advantages of modern societies he also criticized them for their cold and impersonal nature that caused alienation while praising the intimacy of traditional communities.