They are also more likely to take IPV more seriously. By contrast, boys are more likely to report experiencing less severe acts, such as being pinched, slapped, scratched or kicked. Girls are more likely to report committing less serious forms of IPV, including as a means of self-defense, whereas boys are more likely to report committing more severe acts of IPV, including threats, physical violence and controlling a partner.
That is, young people who are labeled as or considered to be violent and aggressive at any point in time are then assumed to be dangerous for the rest of their lives. While classifying the perpetrator as a threat may be detrimental to his or her life and future relationships, not classifying the perpetrator this way may put future partners at risk.
There is considerable debate over whether we as a society have an accurate picture of the prevalence and severity of teen dating violence by gender. It is important to note that although male and female adolescents do not differ in "overall frequency of violence in dating relationships," females are subject to "significantly higher levels of severe violence". Age of consent is an issue that cannot be ignored in the discussion of teenage dating violence. Teenage sex is regulated in such a way that "age of consent laws render teenagers below a certain age incapable of consent to sexual activity with adults, and sometimes with peers".
There are a number of states in which "age of consent statutes are used to prosecute consensual sex between two persons both under the age of consent. Sexual behavior and aggression can be so deeply intertwined that the legality of underage consensual sex is sure to have an effect on teen dating violence. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations.
Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message Significant research has been done on the causes behind violent behavior in adolescent dating relationships with the intention of guiding the creation of dating violence prevention programs, and in turn has provided findings on the roles of nature and nurture in the development of such behavior with a strong favor towards nurture factors.
A study published in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health examined the potential association between a spectrum of childhood adverse experiences and physical violence in relationships before age 21 for both members. The subjects were asked questions about violence in their adolescent relationships, as either victim or perpetrator, and their childhood surrounding twelve different adversities: The results demonstrated a strong positive correlation between ten out of the twelve childhood adversities and physically violent behavior in a teen relationship, with This points to a strong influence of experience, or nature, on violent tendencies in adolescent relationships.
Multiple other studies corroborate these findings, citing childhood bullying, assault, and maltreatment as significant indicators for future violence in adolescent dating. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Prevalence and approaches[ edit ] The literature on IPV among adolescents primarily focuses on Caucasian youth, and there are yet no studies which focus specifically on IPV in adolescent same-sex romantic relationships.
Young people ages 12 to 19 experience the highest rates of rape and sexual assault,  and people age 18 and 19 experience the highest rates of stalking.
Approximately one in three adolescent girls in the United States is a victim of physical, emotional, or verbal abuse from a dating partner—a figure that far exceeds victimization rates for other types of violence affecting youth  Mark Green , former Wisconsin Representative said "if the numbers we see in domestic violence dating violence were applied to terrorism or gang violence, the entire country would be up in arms, and it would be the lead story on the news every night".
A survey conducted by Teenage Research Unlimited stated that " percent of teens have been threatened physically via e-mail, IM, text messaging, chat rooms, etc. It stated, however, that the "data also suggest that females who commit acts of domestic violence may experience more violent or frequent IPV victimization than males" and that "[t]he highest rates [for female-perpetrated IPV] were found for emotional violence, followed by physical and sexual violence.
Prevalence rates varied widely within each population, most likely due to methodological and sampling differences across studies. Also, according to the CDC, one in ten teens will be physically abused between seventh and twelfth grade.
Because of this abuse, victims are more likely to abuse drugs and alcohol, employ precarious sexual conduct, develop eating disorders, and attempt suicide. The reciprocal of males learning violent behaviors is that women are not learning this fact and are instead learning through our culture and through violence directed at them that they are to be submissive.
Males learning violent behaviors coupled with females thinking it normative creates a cycle of women being abused, learning to accept it and imparting this idea to their children and repeating the process. According to a study conducted by Susan M. Sanders she found that many adolescents do not always view aggressive behavior as violent or abusive and roughly The study conducted demonstrated that many adolescents, primarily females were more susceptible to leave only after a physical altercation took place.
With these studies it was found that once a physical altercation took place the victim would then view it as abusive and eventually desire to leave the relationship.
Further, according to NCSL "[i]n at least eight states have introduced legislation to address teen dating violence". They offer information on building healthy relationships and how to recognize warning signs. It is the only helpline in the country serving all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.