They were first passed in the s to prevent freed Black slaves from marrying Whites and the biracial children of White slave owners and African slaves from inheriting property. It was not until , during the height of the Civil Rights Movement, that the U. Supreme Court ruled in the Loving v. Virginia case that such laws were unconstitutional. At that time, 38 states in the U. As suc, one could argue that it's only been in recent years that interracial marriages have become common in American society.
Of course, anti-miscegenation laws were part of a larger anti-Asian movement that eventually led to the Page Law of that effectively almost eliminated Chinese women from immigrating ot the U. These laws actually made the situation worse because Asian men were no longer able to bring their wives over to the U. So in a way, those who wanted to become married had no other choice but to socialize with non-Asians.
After World War II however, the gender dynamics of this interracial process flip-flopped. Further, after the passage of the Immigration Act , many of these Asian war brides eventually helped to expand the Asian American community by sponsoring their family and other relatives to immigrate to the U. These days, Asian Americans in interracial relationships are very common.
One of the best research articles on this topic is a study conducted by Shinagawa and Pang entitled "Asian American Panethnicity and Intermarriage," reprinted in the highly recommended Asian Americans: Similar in structure to their study, my colleague J.
Huang and I have analyzed data from the U. Census Bureau to construct the following table on marriage patterns among Asian Americans. The other major component of the table is that it presents different numbers depending on which statistical model is used. That is, the specific numbers for each ethnic group vary depending on how you measure "intermarriage. This model include all marriages that involve at least one Asian American.
The benefit of this approach is that you get a complete picture of all marriages involving Asian Americans. The drawback is that since most married Asian Americans are immigrants, many of them got married in their home countries before immigrating to the U.
USR stands for "U. This model narrows down the sample somewhat by trying to exclude those who were already married when they arrived in the U. This model includes only marriages in which both spouses are U.
This has the advantage of including only those who were raised and socialized within American society and its racial dynamics. It is this U. The drawback of this model is that by focusing exclusively on the U. I present these three models to give you, the reader, the opportunity to decide for yourself which model best represents the "true" picture of marriage among Asian Americans.
You should understand that each model has its strengths and weaknesses and as you can see, each produces some very different numbers. If you would like to read about the exact procedure J. Huang and I used to calculate these numbers, visit the Statistical Methodology page. These are certainly a lot of numbers to consider and as I mentioned above, each model presents a different proportion.
Nonetheless, what these stats tell us is that generally speaking, across all three models calculated by using the admittedly unscientific method of averaging the proportions across all three models to emphasize the last two models , these are the Asian ethnic groups are most or least likely to have each kind of spouse: Asian Indian White -- Most: Vietnamese Black -- Most: Chinese Multiracial or Other -- Most: Asian Indians White -- Most: Asian Indian Black -- Most: Asian Indian Multiracial or Other -- Most: In other words, they only represent a 'snapshot' look using the latest data from Nonetheless, it is important to recognize that such marriage patterns have evolved and changed over time.
In order to get a closer look at recent trends, we can compare these numbers to data from the Census. In comparing the data to the numbers, there are a few notable trends we can observe: Consistently, rates of marriages involving Asian Americans and Whites have declined. Specifically, among those marriages in which both spouses are U. For Vietnamese men, their rates of marriage to a White wife increased from Strangely, the sample population sizes for U. For example, in , there were about 40, and 45, U.
In , those numbers declined to 26, and 34, Some possible explanations are that many who were married in got divorced, U. This increase was almost universal across all six ethnic groups and for both genders the only exception was for Filipino women. Now that we have a general picture of what the marriage rates are for all members of each of these six Asian American ethnic groups, on the next page we will take a more specific look at only those Asian Americans who grew up in the U.