Origins[ edit ] The Parisii , a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones , inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC.
It became a prosperous city with a forum, baths, temples, theatres, and an amphitheatre. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris gradually became the largest and most prosperous city in France. Paris in the Middle Ages , Paris in the 16th century , and Paris in the 17th century By the end of the 12th century, Paris had become the political, economic, religious, and cultural capital of France.
Paris's cultural centre had begun to move to the Right Bank, the swampland there having been transformed into farmland. In the late 12th century, Philip Augustus extended the Louvre fortress to defend the city against river invasions from the west, gave the city its first walls between and , rebuilt its bridges to either side of its central island, and paved its main thoroughfares.
Bartholomew's Day massacre in which thousands of French Protestants were killed. This king made several improvements to the capital during his reign: The king would end his life in the capital, assassinated in a narrow street near Les Halles marketplace in After Richelieu's death in , it was the renamed the Palais-Royal.
To demonstrate that the city was safe from attack, the king had the city walls demolished and replaced with tree-lined boulevards that would become the Grands Boulevards of today. Paris in the 18th century , Paris during the Second Empire , and Haussmann's renovation of Paris Paris grew in population from about , in to , in Paris was the financial capital of continental Europe, the primary European centre of book publishing, fashion and the manufacture of fine furniture and luxury goods.
On 14 July, a mob seized the arsenal at the Invalides , acquiring thousands of guns, and stormed the Bastille , a symbol of royal authority. The architect, Charles Garnier , described the style simply as "Napoleon the Third. In , as the revolution turned more and more radical, the king, queen, and the mayor were guillotined, along with more than 16, others throughout France , during the Reign of Terror.
The first railway line to Paris opened in , beginning a new period of massive migration from the provinces to the city. After months of blockade, hunger, and then bombardment by the Prussians, the city was forced to surrender on 28 January On 28 March, a revolutionary government called the Paris Commune seized power in Paris. The Commune held power for two months, until it was harshly suppressed by the French army during the "Bloody Week" at the end of May Late in the 19th century, Paris hosted two major international expositions: It was the birthplace of Fauvism , Cubism and abstract art ,   and authors such as Marcel Proust were exploring new approaches to literature.
The city was also bombed by Zeppelins and shelled by German long-range guns. None of the children came back. On 17 October , an unauthorised but peaceful protest demonstration of Algerians against the curfew led to violent confrontations between the police and demonstrators, in which at least 40 people were killed, including some thrown into the Seine.
In May , protesting students occupied the Sorbonne and put up barricades in the Latin Quarter. Thousands of Parisian blue-collar workers joined the students, and the movement grew into a two-week general strike. Supporters of the government won the June elections by a large majority. The May events in France resulted in the break-up of the University of Paris into 13 independent campuses.
It was highly controversial, and it remains the only building in the centre of the city over 32 storeys high. After many modifications, the new area, named the Metropolis of Grand Paris , with a population of 6.